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Deaf-Blindness Resources



The 4to24 App: For Parents of Deaf-Blind Youth

The 4to24 app is a free mobile app created for parents of youth who are deaf-blind or have combined hearing & vision loss and additional disabilities. It covers ages 4 to 24 years, to go from preschool age into young adulthood. It focuses on reaching the youth’s highest potential for independence, community engagement, and employment, with appropriate support. 

If you’re a parent, the app provides information, activities, and links to resources to inform you about skills and experiences that would be helpful for your child as he or she grows. For youth who are deaf-blind, information focuses on building skills and as much independence as possible, with particular attention to topics like developing a communication system, planning for the future, and creating a profile of the youth’s abilities and preferences to share with a support network. It offers suggestions for activities that are flexible for a broad range of ability levels.

Learn more about the 4to24 App

Last Updated 12/6/2023

Experiences of Young Adults with Deaf-Blindness after High School

Post-high school experiences of young adults who are deaf-blind are described in this article, with a focus on receipt of services, services needed but not received, and engagement in postsecondary education and employment. Differences in these areas between young adults with and without cognitive impairments are discussed.

McDonnall, M., & Cmar, J. (2018). Experiences of young adults with deaf-blindness after high school. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness112(4), 403-410.

Last Updated 7/30/2019

Characteristics, Services, and Outcomes of Vocational Rehabilitation Consumers who are Deaf-Blind

This article provides descriptive information about the characteristics, services, and outcomes of consumers served by vocational rehabilitation agencies in the United States who are deaf-blind based on Rehabilitation Services Administration Case Service Report (RSA-911) data from fiscal years 2013, 2014, and 2015.

Cmar, J. L., & McDonnall, M. C. (2019). Characteristics, services, and outcomes of vocational rehabilitation consumers who are deaf-blindJADARA52(2), 12-24.

Last Updated 7/30/2019

Services for Consumers who are Deaf-Blind: Vocational Rehabilitation Agency Service Models Utilized and Their Effectiveness

The purpose of this study was to investigate vocational rehabilitation (VR) service models used for providing services to consumers who are deaf-blind and their effectiveness. Four VR agency service models were identified: specialist, professional collaboration, specialist plus professional collaboration, and miscellaneous. Significant differences in competitive employment closure rates were found based on the service model type.

McDonnall, M. C., & Cmar, J. L. (2019). Services for consumers who are deaf-blind: Vocational rehabilitation agency service models utilized and their effectivenessJournal of Visual Impairment & Blindness113(1), 19-31.

Last Updated 7/30/2019

Predictors of Employment for Youth Who are Deaf-Blind

This article focuses on factors that predict post-high school employment for transition-age youth who are deaf-blind, based on data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2. Results support the importance of paid high school work experiences, high parent expectations, and vocational education services for improving employment outcomes for youth who are deaf-blind.

Cmar, J.L., McDonnall, M.C., & Markoski, K.M. (2018). In-school predictors of post-school employment for youth who are deaf-blind. Career Development and Transition for Exceptional Individuals41(4), 223-233.

Last Updated 10/04/2018

Employment Statistics for People with Dual Sensory Impairments

This data summary describes current (2016-2020) employment data for individuals with dual sensory impairments. The unemployment rate, labor force participation rate, and employment-population ratio are reported for the general U.S. population, for individuals with all disabilities, and for individuals with dual sensory impairments. A brief history and analysis of the data is also included.

Deaf Blind Data Analysis

Last Updated 7/7/2022

Predictors of Employment and Job Quality of VR Consumers with Deaf-Blindness

The purpose of this study was to investigate employment outcomes for vocational rehabilitation (VR) consumers with deaf-blindness, with a sample of 1,382 consumers obtained from the Rehabilitation Services Administration Case Service Report (RSA-911) data. Overall, the results indicate that several VR service-related factors are associated with whether deaf-blind consumers obtain competitive employment, but consumers’ personal characteristics are much more important in determining job quality.


McDonnall, M. C., & Cmar, J. (2019). Employment outcomes and job quality of vocational rehabilitation consumers with deaf-blindnessRehabilitation Counseling Bulletin, 63(1), 13-24.

Last Updated 5/20/2021

Availability of Mental Health Services for Individuals who are Deaf or Deaf-Blind

A survey of state mental health agencies found that a majority have no specific policy or procedure regarding how to provide mental health services to persons who are deaf or who are deaf-blind. Agency representatives report that staff lack knowledge of how to provide mental health services to persons who are deaf-blind and the agencies lack qualified interpreters. They recommend training for social workers and counselors to address best practices in working with people who are deaf-blind concerning communication methods and strategies, physical interaction, cultural issues, everyday life, sensory deprivation, ethics, use of an interpreter, and other general issues.

Reference: McDonnall, M.C., Crudden, A, LeJeune, B.J., & Steverson, A. (2017). Availability of mental health services for individuals who are deaf or deaf-blind.PDF Journal of Social Work In Disability & Rehabilitation, 16(1), 1-13. DOI: 10.1080/1536710X.2017.1260515.

Last Updated 2/10/2017

Report: Youth with Deaf-Blindness

This report provides a picture of a nationally representative sample of deaf-blind youth during the 2000s (from 2001 to 2009), obtained from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2). The literature about transition-age youth with deaf-blindness is extremely limited; in response to this lack of research, the purpose of this report is to describe the characteristics, secondary school experiences, academic achievements, postsecondary school attendance, and employment experiences of this population from the perspectives of parents/guardians, youth, and teachers.

Report: Youth with Deaf-Blindness

Last Updated 12/15/2017